Determination of radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) in water treatment units in Riyadh city and the corresponding radiation dose

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Abstract

In this study, we have carried out a survey of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations in the final product of the main water treatment units in different districts in Riyadh city of Kingdom of Saudi Arbia to draw a general picture of radium activity levels in drinking waters from these units and to assess the annual effective dose received by public due to the consumption of these waters in drinking and cooking. Radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in water samples using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes and the average activity concentration of 228Ra in Nozha and Eraja districts were found to be in violation of the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization authorized limit for 228Ra of 2.7 pCi/L. The corresponding annual effective dose were 0.17 and 0.19 mSv/y, respectively, which exceeded the 0.1 mSv/y limit allowed by WHO in drinking water. The study shows that it may not be radiologically safe to consume water from the water treatment units in those 2 districts, in view of the fact that measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water is performed mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. It is, therefore, recommended that appropriate measures including uranium isotopes and 210Pb should be made and also such study should be routinely carried out atleast biannually as a check.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-859
Number of pages5
JournalIndian Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume36
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016

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radium isotope
water treatment
drinking water
uranium isotope
water
germanium
radium
drinking
isotope
radiation dose
city
dose

Keywords

  • Ra
  • Ra
  • Anuual effective dose
  • Gamma spectrometry
  • Riyadh
  • Water treatment units

Cite this

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title = "Determination of radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) in water treatment units in Riyadh city and the corresponding radiation dose",
abstract = "In this study, we have carried out a survey of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations in the final product of the main water treatment units in different districts in Riyadh city of Kingdom of Saudi Arbia to draw a general picture of radium activity levels in drinking waters from these units and to assess the annual effective dose received by public due to the consumption of these waters in drinking and cooking. Radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in water samples using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes and the average activity concentration of 228Ra in Nozha and Eraja districts were found to be in violation of the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization authorized limit for 228Ra of 2.7 pCi/L. The corresponding annual effective dose were 0.17 and 0.19 mSv/y, respectively, which exceeded the 0.1 mSv/y limit allowed by WHO in drinking water. The study shows that it may not be radiologically safe to consume water from the water treatment units in those 2 districts, in view of the fact that measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water is performed mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. It is, therefore, recommended that appropriate measures including uranium isotopes and 210Pb should be made and also such study should be routinely carried out atleast biannually as a check.",
keywords = "Ra, Ra, Anuual effective dose, Gamma spectrometry, Riyadh, Water treatment units",
author = "A. Al-Muqrin and H. Al-Ghamdi",
year = "2016",
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language = "English",
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pages = "855--859",
journal = "Indian Journal of Environmental Protection",
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T1 - Determination of radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) in water treatment units in Riyadh city and the corresponding radiation dose

AU - Al-Muqrin, A.

AU - Al-Ghamdi, H.

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N2 - In this study, we have carried out a survey of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations in the final product of the main water treatment units in different districts in Riyadh city of Kingdom of Saudi Arbia to draw a general picture of radium activity levels in drinking waters from these units and to assess the annual effective dose received by public due to the consumption of these waters in drinking and cooking. Radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in water samples using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes and the average activity concentration of 228Ra in Nozha and Eraja districts were found to be in violation of the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization authorized limit for 228Ra of 2.7 pCi/L. The corresponding annual effective dose were 0.17 and 0.19 mSv/y, respectively, which exceeded the 0.1 mSv/y limit allowed by WHO in drinking water. The study shows that it may not be radiologically safe to consume water from the water treatment units in those 2 districts, in view of the fact that measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water is performed mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. It is, therefore, recommended that appropriate measures including uranium isotopes and 210Pb should be made and also such study should be routinely carried out atleast biannually as a check.

AB - In this study, we have carried out a survey of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations in the final product of the main water treatment units in different districts in Riyadh city of Kingdom of Saudi Arbia to draw a general picture of radium activity levels in drinking waters from these units and to assess the annual effective dose received by public due to the consumption of these waters in drinking and cooking. Radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in water samples using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes and the average activity concentration of 228Ra in Nozha and Eraja districts were found to be in violation of the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization authorized limit for 228Ra of 2.7 pCi/L. The corresponding annual effective dose were 0.17 and 0.19 mSv/y, respectively, which exceeded the 0.1 mSv/y limit allowed by WHO in drinking water. The study shows that it may not be radiologically safe to consume water from the water treatment units in those 2 districts, in view of the fact that measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water is performed mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. It is, therefore, recommended that appropriate measures including uranium isotopes and 210Pb should be made and also such study should be routinely carried out atleast biannually as a check.

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